- the roots or principles of fiqh:
“The knowledge or science of those rules which directly or proximately lead to the science of fiqh; and hence it discussuses the nature of the sources or authorities (i.e. of law) and what appertains thereto, and the nature of what is established by the sources or authorities, namely, law and what appertains thereto.”
As included in the last part of the definition the discussion relates to the lawgiver (Al-Hakim), the law (hukm), the objectives of law (mahkum bihi) i.e. acts, rights, and obligations, and the subjects of law, that is those to whom the law applies (mahkum ʿaleihi) or persons.
Fiqh (lit. understanding or knowledge) is acc. to Abu Hanifa رضي الله عنه :
“The knowledge of what is for (lahu) a man's self,
and what is against (ʿaleihi) a man's self.”
“It would ... appear that the object of fiqh in the first era of Islam was to attain knowledge of the affairs