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Explanation of Some Important Islamic Terms

Islamic Concepts & Definitions

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"Allah only accepts actions that are intended purely for His good pleasure."
Saying of Prophet Muhammad ﷺ
(the blessings and peace of Allah upon him)


- Allah (God)
- abstinence (zuhd)
- account taking (muhāsabah)
- acts, human (af'āl)
- action (ʿamal)
- good behavior (adab)
- legal rulings (kinds of)
- alms (sadaqah)
- belief (imam)
- chivalry (futuwwah) pt.1
- new creation (khalq jadid)
- disbeliever (kafir)
- dunya (lower life)
- ego, annihilation (fanā)
- excellence (ihsān)
- fanā wa baqā
- fear (reverential ~) of Allah
- fitna - afflictions
- futuwwa (chivalry) pt.2
- khalqu-l jadīd (the new creation)
- knowledge of Shariʿah
- fiqh (jurisprudence)
- good behavior (adab)
- Halāl (lawful)
- heart (qalb)
- Ihsān - excellence
- innovation (bid'a)
- Islam (islām)
- Islamic law
- jurisprudence (fiqh)

- jihād (great effort)
- kafir (disbeliever)
- knowledge (ʿilm)
- knowledge of law (fiqh)
- lawful (Halāl)
- lower life (dunyā)
- muhāsabah (account taking)
- norm (fitrah)
- obedience
- Oneness of Allah
- poor-due (zakāt)
- prayer (salah)
- religion (dīn)
- rememberg (dhikr)
- Shariah (law)
- sin (dhamb)
- sincerity (ikhlās)
- soul (nafs)
- Sufism (tasawwuf)
- Sunnah (tradition)
- taqwa (awe of God)
- tauhid (oneness)
- truth (haqiqah)
- trust (tawakkul)
- unlawful (harām)
- vice-regent (khalīfa)
- vigilence (murāqabah)
- worship (ʿibādah)

1. Action - ʿamal

1.1 Acts for pleasing Allah (riḍwān)
We must look at each action that we do, or are about to do, and make sure that it will be pleasing to Allah.

Otherwise we will see that great actions are being made small because of one's [low or non-existing] intention. This can best be shown by the hadith related by Abu Umama, when a man once came to the Prophet ﷺ and said, "What of a man who joined us in fighting, his intention being for fame and booty?" The Prophet ﷺ said, "He receives nothing." The man repeated the question three times, and each time the Prophet ﷺ said, "He receives nothing." Then he said,
"Allah only accepts actions that are intended purely for His good pleasure."

more below on the role of intention
An-Nawawi: "Actions are according to intentions"

1.2. Weighing Actions:

1.2.1 There is a saying that it is more lovely for Allah that a man sits for an hour thinking and weighing his actions, than if he prays for some long time.[23] MOO129[L]

1.2.2 Pondering about the Hereafter
الْفِكْرَةُ فِي الآخِرَةِ تُورِثُ الْحِكْمَةَ وَتُحْيِي الْقَلْبَ
: Abu Sulayman, may Allah have mercy on him, said
“Thinking about the Hereafter produces wisdom and life in the heart.”[24] Abu Nu’aym reported it.

1.2.3 Be Mindful of Allah Always
You must, O my brothers, be mindful of Allah in all your movements and times of stillness, at every moment, with every blink of the eye, with every thought, wish or any other state. Feel His nearness to you! Know that He looks and is Aware of you, that nothing that you conceal is hidden from Him. (Sura 10-61; 20-7) [5]

{ He is with you whereever you are, } (Sura 57-4) with His knowledge, awareness and power. If you are of the righteous, He will guide, assist and protect you.

If you find emerging in your heart, when you call to mind the fact that Allah observes you, a shyness that prevents you from disobeying Him and drives you to exert yourself in obeying Him, you are in possession of something of the realities of vigilance (murāqabah). [-n2] Imam ʿAbdallah Ibn Alawi Al-Haddad [5]

See below: The Universal Principle For Doing Good

1.3 The Highest Form of Action
The highest form of action is the invocation of the Divine Name
associated with the prayer of the heart which requires the complete participation of man's will and concentration of mind.
KS315-6[L], the word: invocation-

1.4 Two Kinds of Acts

شَتَّانَ ما بيْن عملين عملِِ تَذْهَبُ لَذَّتُهُ و ﺗﺒﻘَﯽ تَبِعَتُه و عملِِ تذهب مَوؤُنَتُهُ و ﯾَﺒﻘَﯽ أَجْرُهُ
"What a difference there is between two kinds of acts - an act whose pleasure passes away but its (ill) consequence remains and an act whose hardship passes away but its reward stays."[20]
Saying of ʿAli ibn Abi Talib كرم الله وجهه in NB515 no.121 (a: 118)[L]

1.5 Ali (may Allah ennoble his face) كرم الله وجهه was asked concerning actions and alms and he said:

من قصَّر في العملِ اﺑْﺘُﻠِﯽ بِالهَمِّ
man qaṣṣara fi-l ʿamali- btuli bi-l hammi
"Whoever falls short of actions gets into grief."[21]

1.6 Ali كرم الله وجهه on the third best act (after shahadah and prayers): alms

لا حَاجَةَ لِلّٰهِ فيمن ليس لِلّٰهِ ﻓﯽ مالِهِ و نفسهِ نَصيبٌ
lā h.ājata li-llahi fīman laisa li-llahi fī mālihi wa nafihi nas.ībun
"Allah has nothing to do with him who spares nothing from his weath in the name of Allah."
1.1.5 & 1.1.6 are one saying.
Saying of ʿAli ibn Abi Talib كرم الله وجهه in NB517 no.126 (a: 124-5)[L]

1.7 Kinds of Legal Rulings

1.7.1 ʿAbd al-Wahhab Khallaf (RT28[L]): A legal ruling is a statement from the Lawgiver (syn. Allah or His messenger ﷺ Allah bless him and give him peace) concerning the acts of those morally responsible which:

(1) requires something (ṭalaban)
(2) allows a choice (takhayaran)
(3) or gives stipulations (waḍian)

Show more down

1.8 Human Acts of Those Morally Responsible - af'āl al-mukallifīn

Overview - Human Acts according to Islamic Law.
Show more down - or - as tableboard[3]

more on "excellence in acting" (iḥsān)

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2. Belief - īmān

2.1 Iman (faith / belief) is of two kinds:
- The simple expression of faith in the teachings of the Quran and ahadith (or traditions);
- The formal declaration of belief in the six articles of Muslim creed:

  1. in Allah
  2. the Angels of Allah
  3. the holy books of Allah
  4. the Prophets of Allah
  5. the Day of Judgement
  6. Predestination to good and evil
In the traditions, iman includes practice (ʿamal), and all that belongs to the religious life of the Muslim. DI204ii [L]

2.2 Belief
The Muslim believes in One God, who is all-powerful and has no partner; believes in his messengers, sent to mankind for their guidance from the beginning of time; believes that Muhammad ﷺ closed the cycle of messengers and that there can be no further revelation of the divine Law after him; believes that the Quran is the Word of God, unaltered and unalterable, and believes in the obligation to conform to the 'Five Pillars', which are the confession of faith, the five daily prayers, payment of the poor-due, the fast of Ramadan, and performance of the Pilgrimage to Mecca by those physically and financially able to undertake it. A Muslim may neglect one or more of the pillars (except the first) and still be counted as a believer, but if he denies their necessity he has placed himself outside the community. IDM3u[L]

2.3 Ali (ra) was asked concerning belief īmān and he said:

"al-īmān maʿrifatun bil-qalb,
wa iqrār bi-lisān wa ʿamal bi-l arkān"

"Belief īmān is appreciation / gnosis by the heart,
acknowledgement iqrār with tongue and action ʿamalun with limbs."
Saying of ʿAli ibn Abi Talib كرم الله وجهه in NB536 no.227 (a: 225)[L]

more below 16.3: belief without profession is not faith

2.4a Belief īmān is being true to the trust amānah which Allah has placed in man:

{ إِنَّا عَرَضْنَا الْأَمَانَةَ عَلَى السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ وَالْجِبَالِ فَأَبَيْنَ أَن يَحْمِلْنَهَا وَأَشْفَقْنَ مِنْهَا وَحَمَلَهَا الْإِنسَانُ }

{Surely We offered the trust (amānah) to the heavens and the earth and the mountains, but they refused to bear it and shrank from it, but man [undertook to] bear it (has so turned unfaithful to it), surely he is unjust, ignorant.}
Sura The Allies (33) verse 72

2.4b Faith ('Belief') i.e. Iman is trust
”Iman is to trust.” (`Abdullah). ”Iman is the deeds.” (Az-Zuhri)
{They have faith} in Sura 2-3 means, they fear Allah.

Ibn Jarir (At-Tabari) commented, ”The preferred view is that they be described as having faith in the Unseen by the tongue, deed and creed. In this case, fear is included in the general meaning of Iman, which necessitates following deeds of the tongue by implementation.…

Ibn Kathir, vol 1, p.110 (At-Tabari)

2.5 For his brother
Belief (iman) is incomplete for whoever does not love for his brother what he loves for himself, according to the famous hadith:
"lā yuminu ahadukum hatta yuhibbu li-akhīhi ma yuhibbu li-nafsihi"
"He is not a believer who does not love for his brother what he loves for himself."

2.6 Belief īmān has been explained by none other than the Angel Jibril (a.s.) in the famous hadith on islam, iman, ihsan:

see: An-Nawawi's Forty Hadiths
see also at * living islam * Is Belief In God Enough? OKN
Read further: What or Who Is God? Murat Yagan

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3. Good Behavior - adab

3.1 Adab embraces the consideration of all those moral excellencies which are enjoined by the Quran and Traditions (ahadith), as sincerity ikhlās-; trust and confidence in God [tawakkul]; humility (tawādu'); resignation (tafwīz); keeping down one's expectation (qasru-l amal); renunciation of the world (zuhd fi-ddunyā-; giving good counsel and advice nasīha-; contentment (qanā'ah); liberality (sakhāwah); love for Allah and man (hubb); patience (sabr); &c. DI285ii[L]

3.2 Righteousness And Sin

Narrated An-Nawwās (ra):

I asked the Prophet of Allah ﷺ about righteousness and sin, and he said:

الْبِرُّ حُسْنُ الْخُلُقِ وَالإِثْمُ مَا حَاكَ فِي صَدْرِكَ وَكَرِهْتَ أَنْ يَطَّلِعَ عَلَيْهِ النَّاسُ
Al-birru h.usnu-l khalqi, wa-l ithmu mā h.āka fī s.adrika,
wa karihta an yat.t.aliʿa ʿaleihi-nnāsu

Righteousness / piety is good character and sin is that which disturbs your heart, about which you do not want people to know. Muslim

3.3 The Rules of Religion Against The World

It is related that Ibrahim Khawwas said:
“I desire Allah to give me an everlasting life in this world dunya-,
in order that, while mankind are engrossed in the pleasures of the world and forget Allah,
I may observe the rules of religion amidst the affliction (fitnah) of the world and remember Allah.”

3.4 Part of The Adab of Islam Is Gentleness
Aisha رضي الله عنها reported: I was upon a camel which was misbehaving so I began to beat it. The Messenger of Allah ﷺ peace and blessings be upon him, said:

“You must be gentle. Verily, gentleness is not in anything except that it beautifies it, and it is not removed from anything except that it disgraces it.”
عَلَيْكِ بِالرِّفْقِ فَإِنَّ الرِّفْقَ لَا يَكُونُ فِي شَيْءٍ إِلَّا زَانَهُ وَلَا يُنْزَعُ مِنْ شَيْءٍ إِلَّا شَانَهُ
Musnad Ahmad 24417, Sahih

When a group of Jews said ugly words and ʿĀisha responded in a similar way, the holy Prophet (the blessings and peace of Allah upon him) responded and said:

“O ʿĀisha! Allah is kind and lenient and
likes that one should be kind and lenient in all matters.”

يَا عَائِشَةُ إِنَّ اللّٰهَ رَفِيقٌ يُحِبُّ الرِّفْقَ فِي الأَمْرِ كُلِّهِ
Yā ʿā.ishatu, inna-l llāha rafīqun yuh.ibbu-r rifqa fī-l amri kullihi
Al-Bukhari, 9.61

If this is the [adab] of Islam with hardened enemies, so how should it not apeopley to our fellow Muslims, let alone family and loved ones?

3.5 Leaving What Does Not Concern One
The Prophet ﷺ said,
مِنْ حُسْنِ إسْلَامِ الْمَرْءِ تَرْكُهُ مَا لَا يَعْنِيهِ
“The excellence of a person's Islam includes leaving what does not concern him.”

Here Muhammad Jurdani commented:
Meaning the fullness and perfection of a person's Islam and his submission to its rules includes leaving what does not concern him, meaning that which is not connected with what is important to one, be it in word or deed.

The matters that concern a person are those connected with necessities of life in gaining a livelihood and having a safe return in the afterlife. These do not amount to much in comparison with what does not concern one.

Al-Jawahir al-lu'lu'iyya fi sharh al ʿArbaʿīn al-Nawawiyya (y68), 99, in RT w54.0[L]
from external link: Adab of the Islam by Nuh Keller

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4. This Lower Life - dunyā

4.1 The Believer's Prison

What is the true character of this worldly or lower life? الحياة الدنيا
It is sometimes beautiful, other times awful and ugly, and always passing.
It is the believer's stepping stone for the Life Beyond, which is the real life. الآخِرَة

The Prophet ﷺ said:
الدُّنْيَا سِجْنُ الْمُؤْمِنِ وَجَنَّةُ الْكَافِرِ
ad-dunyā sijnu-l mumin wa jannatu-l kāfir
This (lower) life is the believer's prison and the disbeliever's paradise.

see also Love of the world is the root of all evil

4.2 The Period And Use Of This World:

"al-dunya saʿatun fa ijʿalha taʿatan"
"This world lasts for an hour: Spend it in obedience."
Saying of ʿAli ibn Abi Talib كرم الله وجهه related by Ibn al-Jawzi in "Sifat al-safwat"

4.3 The Islamic teaching concerning this world - dunya:

{ إِنَّ الَّذِينَ لَا يَرْجُونَ لِقَاءَنَا وَرَضُوا بِالْحَيَاةِ الدُّنْيَا وَاطْمَأَنُّوا بِهَا وَالَّذِينَ هُمْ عَنْ آيَاتِنَا غَافِلُونَ }
{ Surely those who do not hope in Our meeting and are pleased with this world's life and are content with it, and those who are heedless of Our communications/ our verses:
(As for) those, their abode is the fire because of what they earned.}

Sura Yunus 10, verses 7/8

One of the (2)enormities- [ of sins ] is wanting the life of this world more than the next and being satisfied and contented with it. RT[L]

4.4 Two Kinds of People:
"This world is a place of transit, not a place of stay. The people herein are of two categories: One is the man who sold away his self (to passions) and thus ruined it, and the other the man who purchased his self (by control against passions) and freed it. "
Saying of ʿAli ibn Abi Talib كرم الله وجهه in NB520 no.133 (a: 131)[L]

4.5 Like A Serpent
"This world is like a serpent. It is soft in touch but its inside is full of venom.
An ignorant person who has fallen in deceit is attracted towards it but a wise and intelligent man keeps guard from it."
Saying of ʿAli ibn Abi Talib كرم الله وجهه in NB514 no.119 (a: 116)[L]

4.6 Reality Or Imagination?
This world is maintained by [Divine] imagination. You call it 'reality', since it can be seen and perceived and those meanings of which the world is an offshoot you call 'imagination.' The true situation is the reverse. The imagination is this world itself, for that Meaning [by Allah] brings into existence a hundred worlds like this, and they rot and disintegrate and become naught. Then It [Allah] produces a new world and better… RUM250[L]

4.7 One Reality
All Reality (Being - wujūd) is one and an absolute Unity.
It is the source and cause of all beings.
There is only one reality in existence;
from different angles it is called the One, the Real (al-Haqq),
or the many, the phenomenal world, appearences, (al-khalq);
so - the One and the Many are only names
for two aspects of One Reality;
and because Allah is the One and there is no 'other',
and because Allah is the Real and there is no-one more 'real',
so this Ultimate Reality is Allah and there is no other. AFF[L]

4.8 No Relaxation in this World
There can be no relaxation at all in this world for a believer endowed with reason. Whenever he finds such relaxation, this is always accompanied by heedlessness of his Lord and of his appointed time (of death). A fool, however, may find relaxation in the world, for as a fool, he is unaware of problems or of disturbing things, whether actual or expected. Imam al-Haddad[32]

Related link on another site:
To be in the world, but not of it | From Interview with Sheikh Tosun Bayrak al-Jerrahi

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5. Heart - qalb / Sadr

5.1 The heart is the principle of both the mind and the body. KS311+11[L]

5.2 hadith: Compassion In The Hearts:

Narrated Usama bin Zaid: The daughter of the Prophet ﷺ sent someone to her father requesting him to come as her child was dying (or was gasping), but the Prophet ﷺ told him to convey his greeting to her and say:
"Whatever Allah takes is for Him and whatever He gives, is for Him, and everything with Him has a limited fixed term (in this world) and so she should be patient and hope for Allah's reward."
She again sent for him, swearing that he should come. The Prophet ﷺ got up, and so did Sad bin 'Ubada, Muadh bin Jabal, Ubai bin Ka'b, Zaid bin Thabit and some other men. The child was brought to Allah's Apostle while his breath was disturbed in his chest … On that the eyes of the Prophet ﷺ started shedding tears. Sad said, "O Allah's Apostle! What is this?" He replied,
"It is mercy which Allah has put in the hearts of His slaves, and Allah is merciful only to those of His slaves who are merciful (to others)."
(wa innamā yarHamu-LLahu min ʿibādihi-rruHamā) B2-373

5.3 Traditional doctrine states that Sacred Knowledge is being attainable not through the mind but the heart once it is purified and the 'eye of the heart '... opened. KS28-5[L]

5.4 hadith: What Whispers In The Hearts:

Narrated Abu Huraira:

The Prophet ﷺ said, "Allah has accepted (my invocation) on behalf of my community not to take into account of what whispers in their hearts, unless they put it to action or utter it."

Bukhari vol 3, book 46, no. 705

5.5 Hearts Advancing And Retreating:

inna li-l qulūbi shahwatan wa iqbālan wa idbāran
fa.tūhā min qabli shahwatihā fa-inna-l qalba idhā akrihā ʿamiya

"Hearts are imbued with passion and power of advancing and retreating. Therefore approach them for action at a time of (or: before) their passionateness (and when they are in the mood of advancing), because if hearts are forced (to do a thing) they get blind."
Saying of ʿAli ibn Abi Talib كرم الله وجهه in NB531 no.193 (a: 191)[L]

- More on the heart- as described by Imam Al-Ghazali
- Note of Al-Suyuti about the science of the heart
- Advice of the Prophet ﷺ about the hardness of the heart
- About The Pure Heart, And What It Keeps Alive
- On the Science of the Heart Man’s Innermost Reality, the Center of Consciousness

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6. Islamic Law - Shariʿah

6.1 The Law of Islam is also called the "Way or Road" in Islam, which Allah has established for the guidance of mankind, both for the worship of God and for the duties of life.

6.2 The occidental tends to see the shariʿah as a straightjacket rather than as a framework,
unaware that it has within it adequate space for free movement (and for individual differences), and unwilling to accept the psychological implications of the fact that a physical body disintegrates when placed in a vacuum. IDM170[L]

All of the Shariʿah and the religion is an instruction and a blessing from Allah.

see below: shariʿah - haqīqah and the difference between them
see below: 33. Knowledge of (Shariʿah -) Fiqh

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7. Jihād

7.1 Striving hard for Allah's countenance and good pleasure.

7.2 The Universal Principle For Doing Good
This universal principle states that in order to do good one must be good; in order to conquer the world one must first conquer oneself, which means one's lower passions.
This universal truth needs to be reasserted today more than ever before when so many wish to reform the world without having reformed themselves. SH Nasr

7.3 Jihad is first against the self nafs
(It has to be noted) that the verses of jihād were revealed in the Meccan period when military action was impossible, proving that the first and foremost jihad meant by Allah Most High is the jihad against the self, without which the second is a corrupt jihad (jihād al-fasād) - of which, unfortunately, there is abundant illustration nowadays. GF Haddad

What is the self and the soul? See: The Meaning Of Nafs

7.4 Wrong and defective definition of jihad
“Jihad is not a defensive war only, but a war against any unjust regime. If such a regime exists, a war is to be waged against the leaders, but not against the people of that country. People should be freed from the unjust regimes and influences so that they can freely choose to believe in Allah.”

Comment to the above: "War against any unjust regime" is just another self-righteous slogan which, when put into practice opens the doors to all kind of fitna and killings, which are certainly not according to the Islamic Law!

In this respect compare 7.4 with 7.5 !

7.5 Rebellion Against Rulers
“Whoever lives under a particular government must obey the ruler and live peacefully. They are prohibited from taking up arms against him. Uprising or violence by any group against the ruler is completely rejected in Islam, and was prohibited by the Prophet ﷺ and will be a cause of death on the way of ignorance (jahiliyya).”

The whole fatwa is here (external link):
(https://wpisca.wpengine.com) Jihad, Terrorism and Suicide Bombing: The Classical Islamic Perspective

7.6 Conditions for Combative Jihad
“The position of the law is that only at such a time when it can be reasonably proven that there are aggressive designs against Islam and there are concerted efforts to eject Muslims from their legally acquired property and that military campaigns are being launched to eradicate them.
At such a time the ruler can declare and execute the provisions of Jihad. It is a condition that there be a leader of the Muslims, an Imam, to declare combative Jihad.”

7.7 Standing firm
Standing firm is the lesser jihad and is dependent on the greater jihad which is the jihad against the ego through the remembrance of God and purification of the soul.

More… 07 - True Jihad Shaykh Muhammad al-Yaqoubi

7.8 The principles of treating the illnesses of the soul (nafs)
They are five:
- lightening the stomach by diminishing one's food and drink,
- taking refuge in Allah Most High from the unforeseen when it befalls,
- shunning situations that involve what one fears to fall victim to,
- continually asking for Allah's forgiveness and His blessings
     upon the Prophet ﷺ night and day with full presence of mind,
- and keeping the company of him who guides one to Allah.[2]

These are some of the beneficial steps for the ʿabd to take (servant of Allah) on the road of jihād al akbar جهاد الاكبر (the greatest jihad, the struggle against the lower self - nafs.)

More… Reality of Tasawwuf (Sufism), Sheikh Yusuf al-Sayyid Hashim al-Rafaʿi, An-Nawawi

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8. Human Norm - fitrah

8.1 Man is fully responsible for his actions, in that Islam does not adhere to the concept of original sin. He has been created in the 'most perfect of forms' (sura 95 verse 4) and it is only later, when he veers from his inherent path to which he was called by God that he falls very low. As the Messenger of Allah ﷺ has said, everyone has been created pure and that sins are first committed in adolescence. Another tradition by him, which is often told in this context, says that every child is born according to its natural disposition fitrah and it is the parents who bring him up to become a Jew, Christian or Magian.

This concept of fitrah, or human norm-, which in a way comes close to the concept of conscience, means that man has an inborn awareness of what is true and good, for the simple reason that he was born as a human being.

This conscience, though unclear with most of the people, has to be actuated by the light of revelation and the pattern of the Prophet ﷺ who clearly represents the perfect norm for the whole of mankind.

The disbeliever, however, inhibits his fitrah through his deliberate denial. It is ultimately the source which would enable him to recognize the truth emanating from revelation. In order to excuse himself he would have to declare his innocence which only increases his responsability. DEC[L]

The 'psychological implication of fitrah', is that "although man is born in a state of fitrah, he also has the potential for wrong, (so) in order to actualise his fitrah, man needs to gain control over this potential for wrong within himself." Yasien Mohamed broken link!

Related: What Is Norm And What Normality?

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9. Reverential fear of Allah, or the awe of God - taqwa

9.1 An Imam said: “istiqāma ʿayn at-taqwa”: To be upright, sincere (in following the Quran and Sunna) is the essence of God-fearingness (taqwa).
Through Quran and Sunna we seek protection from losing Allahs good pleasure.

9.2 "Taqwa's meaning is fear, clinging to obedience to Allah and abandoning disobedience to Him. It is the sum of all good."
Ibn Juzayy in his dictionary of quranic words: Kitāb at-tashīl li ʿulūm at-tanzīl. CFH58[L]

9.3 "O people, have taqwā (fear) of Allah, who is such that when you speak He hears and when you conceal (a secret) He knows it. Prepare yourself to meet death which would overtake you even if you run away, catch you even if you stay and remember you even if you forget it."
Saying of ʿAli ibn Abi Talib كرم الله وجهه in NB532 no.199 (a: 201)[L]

There is protection from sins in the sunnah

9.4 The root meaning of taqwa is to avoid what one dislikes [and in extension, what Allah dislikes].

It was reported that `Umar ibn al-Khattab asked Ubayy bin Ka`b about taqwa. Ubayy said, ”Have you ever walked on a path that has thorns on it? `Umar ibn al-Khattab (may Allah be pleased with him and all Sahaba) said, ”Yes.” Ubayy said, ”What did. you do then?” He said, ”I rolled up my sleeves and struggled.” Ubayy said, ”That is Taqwa.”

Ibn Kathir, vol 1, p.109/110

9.5 Taqwa is the piety which comes from the awe of God.[L]

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10. Religion - dīn

10.1 The dīn (religion of Islam ) is the way of life as modelled by the Prophet Muhammad ﷺ, also - it is the lifetransaction for what we owe to Allah.

10.2 Islam is threefold
It is Islam (submission to Allah, following the Law, both inward and outward), [Iman] and [Ihsan].

See also: The Dīn of Islam

10.3 Linguistically this word can mean obedience, worship, or recompense and repayment.
The shariʿah definition however is: that which Allah legislated upon the tongue of His Prophet ﷺ concerning laws. Synonymous with this are the words Islam, and shariʿah.

10.4 It is not enough just to learn and believe in Allah and His messengers.
(Peace be upon them all). Rather, one has to also learn:

(1) the laws by which Allah wants a person to live by,
(2) the specific beliefs concerning unseen things, and
(3) the method of purifying the human soul until it can see Allah.
These three things together are called the dīn.

more… Fundamentals of Faith

10.5 The function of all religions is to save man from the imperfections implied by their terrestrial state. KS230 c[L]
NB: Though this general statement is true for all religions, it does not follow that all religions are somehow the same or equal.

more on 'The Religion' - dīn and The Meaning of dīn in Islam

10.6 The 'ill' of religion certainly does not lie in the hypothetical vanity of all doctrine, but solely in the fact that too many men either have not followed, or do not follow, true doctrines. UI112/3[L]

10.7 Religion is the orchard
Religion (al-dīn) is an orchard[27] of which
the fence is the Law (al-sharīʿa),
the inner grove is the Path (al-tarīqa),
and the fruit is the Reality (al-haqīqa).

Whoever has no Law has no Religion;
whoever has no Path has no Law; and
whoever has no Reality has no Path.

Shaykh al-ʿArusi in: Sufism in Islam Sh GF Haddad

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11. Remembering Allah, invocations - dhikr

11.1 To remember or recite aloud or either with a low voice or mentally the name of Allah, or the shahadah: la ilaha illa-LLah, Muhammadan rasuulu-LLah, or a surah or some verses from the Holy Quran. OD

11.2 Dhikr or invocation ... is related to the eternal present and which transforms, sanctifies, and delivers man from both daydreaming about the future or the past and by facing Reality, which resides in the present. KS246fn10 [L]

11.3 hadith qudsi: Mentioning Allah's Name:

Abu Hurayrah (may Allah be pleased with him) relates that the Prophet ﷺ said: Allah the Almighty said:

"I am as My servant thinks I am*. I am with him when he makes mention of Me. If he makes mention of Me to himself, I make mention of him to Myself; and if he makes mention of Me in an assembly, I make mention of him in an assemble better than it. And if he draws near to Me an arm's length, I draw near to him an arm's length. And if he comes to Me walking, I go to him at speed."

*«anā ʿinda Zanni ʿabdī bī»

* Another possible rendering of the Arabic:
"I am as My servant expects Me to be".
It was related by al-Buhkari (also by Muslim, at-Tirmidhi and Ibn-Majah).

See also hadith: Gathering for dhikr (for the remembrance of Allah) & On dhikr

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12. Sin - dhamb, khaTi.ah, ithm

12.1 Islam sees the cardinal sin of man in his forgetfulness ghaflah of who he is, although he still carries his primordial[17] nature, which is al-fitrah within himself. KS185fn14[L]

12.2 There are 17 'kabirah' or greater sins:

  1. kufr - infidelity, disbelief
  2. Constantly committing little sins
  3. Dispairing of Allah's mercy
  4. Considering oneself safe from the wrath of God
  5. False witness
  6. qadhf - falsely charging a Muslim with adultery
  7. Taking a false oath
  8. Magic
  9. Drinking wine
  10. Appropriation of the property of orphans
  11. Usury
  12. Adultery
  13. Unnatural crime
  14. Theft
  15. Murder
  16. Fleeing in battle before an infidel enemy
  17. Disobedience to parents DI594ii[L]
more elsewhere: Major Sins in Islam

12.3 Islam sets out to abolish both uncertainty and hesitation and especially both error and sin; error in holding that the Absolute is not, or that it is relative..; (whereas) sin places these errors on the level of the will or of action. UI13[L]

see hadith above on: - piety - - sin

12.5 hadith: Faith Taken Away From Believer:

Narrated 'Ikrima from Ibn 'Abbas:

The Messenger of Allah ﷺ said, "When a slave (of Allah) commits illegal sexual intercourse, he is not a believer at the time of committing it; and if he steals, he is not a believer at the time of stealing; and if he drinks an alcoholic drink, then he is not a believer at the time of drinking it; and he is not a believer when he commits a murder,"
'Ikrima said: I asked Ibn Abbas, "How is faith taken away from him?" He said, "Like this," by clasping his hands and then separating them, and added, "But if he repents, faith returns to him like this," by clasping his hands again. B8-800 b

12.6 hadith: The biggest sin:

Narrated 'Abdullah bin Mas'ud:
I said, " O Messenger of Allah! Which is the biggest sin?" He said,
"To set up rivals to Allah though He alone has created you."
I asked, "What is next?" He said, "To kill your child so that it should not share your food."
I asked, " What is next?" He said, "To commit illegal sexual intercourse with the wife of your neighbor." B8-802

12.7 Abstention From Sin:

tarku-dh dhanbi ahwanu min t.alabi-t taubati

"Abstention from sin is easier than seeking help afterwards."
Saying of ʿAli ibn Abi Talib كرم الله وجهه in NB527 no.170 (a: 168)[L]

12.8 "Whoever falls into ambivalent matters ... haram"

Meaning that either it is haram or not, or that he would _almost_ fall into haram, as it is said, "Acts of disobedience are the postal service of disbelief (kufr)", because when a person falls into infringements, he will advance step by step from one corruption to another greater than it. CFH39

Following the prophetic the Sunnah: protection from sins

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13. Disbeliever - kafir

13.1 A disbeliever is he who directs his hostile attitude against Islam or muslims, with hand, tongue or pen. Then he is a kafir, whether he belongs to some religion or is an atheist.
From this follows that if a Non-Muslims treats Muslims in a normal and proper way, he must not be considered a kafir, also because it cannot be said that he has got correct knowledge of Islam, while living in the West with its anti-Islam propaganda.

Go deeper: Who is a kafir? Sh Faraz Rabbani

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14. The Levels of The Unlawful - Harām

14.1 Scholars distinguish between three levels of the unlawful:

(1) minor sins (saghira, pl. sagha'ir), which may be forgiven from prayer to prayer, from one Friday prayer (jumu'a) to another, and so forth, as is mentioned in the hadith.

(2) enormities (kabira, pl. kaba'ir), those which appear by name in the Quran or hadith as the subject of an explicit threat, prescribed legal penalty, or curse.

(3) and unbelief (kufr), sins which put one beyond the pale of Islam and necessitate stating the Testification of Faith (Shahada) to reenter it.

Repentance is obligatory for all three. RT-31[L]

Read on the 17 kabira, big sins.

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15. Islam

15.1 Islam
Islam is to believe in the words of Allah and the Prophet ﷺ and to accept them.
It is to obey Allah in reverence , to purify one's inner and outer self and to harmonize one's speech with it.
The one who fulfills these prerequisites is a Muslim. ISKA11[L]

15.2 Islam
Islam is a way of life as old as man himself. It consists of beliefs and actions, but neither of the two is, by itself, deemed enough. All great teachers of the world - Adam, Noah, Abraham, Moses, Jesus and Muhammad ﷺ - are to be respected as the true prophets of Allah, because they all preached Islam, each according to its time. With the Holy Prophet of Islam the basic teachings of Islam received their final shape. So Muhammad ﷺ was the Last of the Prophets. LSIS-5[L]
Islam is the last boat to shore.

15.3 Islam
"I am defining Islam as no-one has defined (it) before me:
Islam is submission taslīm, submission is conviction yaqīn, conviction is affirmation tasdīq, affirmation is acknowledgement iqrār, acknowledgement is discharge ( of obligation) adā.u, discharge of obligation is action ʿamal. "
Saying of ʿAli ibn Abi Talib كرم الله وجهه in NB517 no.125 (a: 122)[L]

15.4 Islam has been explained by none other than the Angel Jibril (a.s.) in the famous hadith on islam, iman, ihsan:

This famous hadith is no.2 at: An-Nawawi's Forty Hadiths

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16. Truth, Sincerity - haqīqah

16.1 Haqīqah: the profound truth of everything in existence. It is "the essence of a thing as meaning that by being which a thing is what it is." DI162i [L]

16.2 Islamic haqīqah: Islam in its aspect of divine truth and knowledge

16.3 Shariʿah - haqīqah and the difference between them:
These terms are used ... to denote [the] soundness of the outward state and [the] maintenance of the inward state.

Two parties err in this matter:
firstly, the formal theologians, who assert that there is no distinction between shariʿat (law) and haqīqat (truth), since the Law is the Truth and the Truth is the Law;
secondly, some heretics, who hold that it is possible for one of these things to subsist without the other, and declare that when the Truth is revealed the Law is abolished. This is, the doctrine of [some sects].

The proof that the Law is virtually separate from the Truth lies in the fact that in faith belief is separate from profession and the proof that the Law and the Truth are not fundamentally separate, but are one, lies in the fact that belief without profession is not faith, and conversely profession without belief is not faith; and there is a manifest difference between profession and belief.

Haqīqah, then, signifies a reality which does not admit of abrogation and remains - in equal force, from the time of Adam, to the end of the world, like knowledge of God and like religious practice, which is made perfect by sincere intention; and shariʿat signifies a reality which admits of abrogation and alteration, like ordinances and commandments. Therefore shariʿat is man's act, while haqīqat is God's keeping and preservation and protection, whence it follows that shariʿat cannot possibly be maintained without the existence of haqīqat, and haqīqat cannot be maintained without observance of shariʿat. Their mutual relation may be compared to that of body and spirit: when the spirit departs from the body the living body becomes a corpse and the spirit vanishes like wind, for their value depends on their conjunction with one another.

Similarly, the Law without the Truth is ostentation, and Truth without the Law is hypocrisy. God has said: "Whosoever strives hard for Our sake, we will assuredly guide them in Our ways ( sura al-ʿankabut 29, verse 69): striving hard (jāhada) is Law, guidance is Truth; the former consists in a man's observance of the external ordinances, while the latter consists in God's maintenance of a man's spiritual feelings. Hence the Law is one of the acts acquired by man, but the Truth is of the gifts bestowed by God. KAM383/4[L]

Related text at: Sharīʿah, Tarīqah And Haqīqah S H Nasr
also: Shariʿah and Haqīqah ʿAli B. Uthman Al-Jullabi Al-Hujwiri

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17. Alms - sadaqah

{ لَن تَنَالُوا الْبِرَّ حَتَّىٰ تُنفِقُوا مِمَّا تُحِبُّونَ وَمَا تُنفِقُوا مِن شَيْءٍ فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ بِهِ عَلِيمٌ }

You will not attain piety/ righteousness until you give (freely) of what you love; and whatever thing you give/ expend, Allah knows it well. Sura 3-92

{ وَمَن يُوقَ شُحَّ نَفْسِهِ فَاُولٰۤئِكَ هُمُ الْمُفْلِحُونَ}

{ And whoever is protected from the stinginess of his soul - it is those who will be the successful. }

17.1 "Give voluntary charity as much as possible, for you owe more than merely the zakat obligatory. Make provision from the afterlife by giving while you have health and want to cling to your money out of fear of poverty, seeing life before you."
Muhammad Saʿid Burhānī [14] The Quranverse above is Sura 59-9

17.2 Sadaqah is random acts of kindness and good deeds, due upon every Muslim every day, so it is not just a monetary transaction, but comes in many forms.[16]
Donating Sadaqah - little or much - "instills compassion and empathy in the heart of the doers and eases the beneficiaries in multiple ways."[9]

Abu Dharr narrated that the Prophet ﷺ said, “You putting some of the water from your bucket in your brother’s bucket is sadaqah. You removing stones, thorns and bones from people’s path is sadaqah. You guiding a man in a place where there are no guides is sadaqah.”[9]

17.3 Sadaqah - three more hadith

“Sadaqah (charity) extinguishes sin as water extinguishes fire” (Tirmidhī).
He also said that Allah (may His Majesty be exalted) will give relief on a day when there is no other relief for those who spend sadaqa:
“The believer's shade on the Day of Resurrection will be their charity.” (Tirmidhī).
"Charity (al-sadaqa) certainly extinguishes the Lord's anger and repels a bad death." (Narrated from Anas with a weak chain by al-Tirmidhī, gharīb).

17.4 Protection against the Fire
اتَّقُوا النَّارَ وَلَوْ بِشِقِّ تَمْرَةٍ فَمَنْ لَمْ يَجِدْ فَبِكَلِمَةٍ طَيِّبَةٍ
ittaqū-n nāra wa lau bi-shaqqi tamaratin
"Protect yourself against the fire (of Hell),
even by giving away half a piece of a date (in charity)."
ʿAdiyy bn Hātim relates that he heard the Messenger of Allah ﷺ say it.

17.5 Sadaqah Jariyah
Sadaqah Jariyah means ongoing reward of a Muslim, even when he has passed on to the next abode. For example having invested in the teaching the dīn of Islam: multiple beneficial results over generations for those trained, their offspring and for society as a whole.[10]

17.6 Giving Alms - sadaqah
Saying of ʿAli ibn Abi Talib كرم الله وجهه
اسْتنْزلُوا الرِّزْقَ بِالصَّدَقَةِ
istanzilū-r rizqa bi-s. s.adaqati
"Seek livelihood by giving alms."[11]

Go deeper: (globalsadaqah.com) Hadith About Sadaqah, Give Sadaqah - Good and informative.

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18. Sincerity - Ikhlās

18.1 Ikhlās
It means "the purification of your action from all tinge,[13] … so that in it only exists the striving to come closer to Allah and no other motive."
Al-Ghazalī in his Ihya IE-I-57

18.2 Sincerity
Al-Junayd said: الاخلاص ما اُريد به الله من أﯼ عمل كان
"Sincerity is that whereby Allah is desired, whatever the act may be."[15]
Ruwaym said: الاخلاص ارتفاع رؤيتك من الفعل
"Sincerity is lifting one's regard from the deed."[15]

18.3 Ikhlās means purity
It means purity, because it is about minimising the number of intentions in every action we have.
The believer should have one intention, which is to please the One who alone is a meaningful judge. A H Murad[47]

Related: Nasiha is Sincerity and Giving Good Counsel

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19. Vice-Regent Of Allah - khalīfatu- Allah

19.1 Man Is Vice-Regent Of Allah On Earth.

Allah the Creator of the universe created man as the best creature in all creation. He says in the Holy Qur'an:

{ لَقَدْ خَلَقْنَا الْإِنسَانَ فِي أَحْسَنِ تَقْوِيمٍ }

{We have indeed created man in the best of forms.}
Sura The Fig 95-4

{ وَهُوَ الَّذِي جَعَلَكُمْ خَلَائِفَ الْأَرْضِ وَرَفَعَ بَعْضَكُمْ فَوْقَ بَعْضٍ دَرَجَاتٍ لِّيَبْلُوَكُمْ فِي مَا آتَاكُمْ إِنَّ رَبَّكَ سَرِيعُ الْعِقَابِ وَإِنَّهُ لَغَفُورٌ رَّحِيمٌ }

{For He it is Who has appointed you vicegerent over the earth, and has exalted some of you over others in rank that He may try you in what He has bestowed is upon you.}
Sura Cattle 6-165

With the best of forms and due to his particular qualities man was exalted in his position as he was made vice-regent of Allah on earth. Allah even commanded the angels to fall down in obeisance to him. But it was man who took it on to himself to shoulder this big responsibility - amānah - and to discharge the duties as deputy of the Lord, with all the difficulties and suffering this entails.

more: Frequent Questions About Islam and Religion

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20. Oneness Or Unity Of Allah - at-tauhīd

20.1 It is the knowledge of Allah's oneness or unification.

20.2 Everything Will Disappear
When one realizes that everything besides Allah is bound to vanquish because it is no cause in itself and has neither real power over anything and nor independent being, one comes to a point to reject everything except the First Cause, the Independent Being, God, Allah. This then is:

{ صِرَاطَ الَّذِينَ أَنْعَمْتَ عَلَيْهِمْ غَيْرِ الْمَغْضُوبِ عَلَيْهِمْ وَلَا الضَّالِّينَ }
{ The path of those You have favoured, not of those who earn Your anger or of those who go astray. }
Quran, sura the Opening (1) verse7 FSH26[L]

20.3 Stages of Belief in Unification
Those who profess belief in unification ( tauhīd may be classified into three groups: those, including hypocrites, who confess the unity with the tongue only; those who believe on the basis of some so-called reliable authority; and those who, on the evidence of their direct, intuitive perception, believe that God is the unmoved Mover of the material world and the ultimate Cause of all creation and that He alone has real or absolute existence. The last stage is the highest.

More… Malik and al-Shafiʿi’s Understanding of Tawhid

20.4 The Realization of Tawhid
That the belief in unification has to be realized and lived.

20.5 Three Lights
Ibn ʿAta' Allah said: “The one who utters the Word of Oneness needs three lights: the light of guidance (Nūr al-hidāya), the light of sufficiency (nūr al-kifāya), and the light of divine help (nūr al-ʿināya).” [31]

More… on dhikr - invocation of God's name

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21. Worship - ʿibādah

21.1 Worshipping the ONE:

ʿIbādah is worship (devotion) of the ONE Being,
because He, God - Allah is the Eternal, the Living, the Existence-Giver, the Real, the True, the Ultimate Truth.
may His Majesty be exalted!

see above: The reason for His being the Real
more… Allah's Names And Attributes

21.2 This is how Allah adressed all of mankind:

{ يَا أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ اعْبُدُوا رَبَّكُمُ الَّذِي خَلَقَكُمْ وَالَّذِينَ مِن قَبْلِكُمْ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَتَّقُونَ }
{O you men ! worship your Lord who created you
and those before you, that you may guard against evil.}

Quran, sura the Cow (2) verse 21

see also related hadith: - worship ( ʿibādah )

21.3 Allah is qualified by real qualities (which are relations).
العلم والقدرة والقوة والعزة والحلم والحكمة والكبرياﺀ والجبروت والقدم والحيٰواة والارادة واﻟﻤﺸﻴﺌﺔ والكلام
These are: knowledge, strength, power, glory, mildness[28], wisdom, majesty, omnipotence, eternity, life, desire, will and speech.
Allah has hearing, sight, face, and hand, unlike[29] (ordinary) hearing, sight, hands and faces. These are attributes of Allah, they are neither He nor other than He, and He is not in need of them, or that He does things with them. DS16 [L]

21.4 Worship in Fear or in Hope
If one were asked which is better, worship in fear or in hope, the answer by Al-Ghazali is (may Allah have mercy on him):
"Worship in hope is better, for hope gives rise to love, while fear can give rise to despair." [30]

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22. Sunna (the traditional way of Islam) - sunnah

22.1 Sunna is the practice of Islam:
The Arabic word sunna lexically means "road" or "practice." In the language of the Prophet ﷺ and the Companions it denotes the whole of licit [lawful] practices followed in the Religion (dīn), particularly the pristine (hanīf) path of Prophets, whether pertaining to belief, religious and social practice, or ethics generally speaking. GF Haddad

more on The Meaning of Sunna Sh GF Haddad

22.2 On Following The Sunna:
"Know that the one who observes the Prophetic good manners in his everyday activities is preserved by Allah from trespassing into the base attributes and behavior that are outside them and obtains the religious and wordly benefits that Allah has set, through His wisdom within them."
Imam ʿAbdallāh Ibn ʿAlawī al-Haddād, BA51[L]

22.3 The Sunna opens up human potential
The Sunna is not ”a way of restricting you into a particular bandwidth of the human potential, but as the whole history of the umma, with all of our paradigms, indicates, that in fact it *opens up the bandwidth* and allows a wide range of different human types to demonstrate the capacity which God has created within them…” AHM [33]

see above: the sunna or recommended act
see also: difference betw. lawful forms of worship & innovative forms

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23. Concept of "New Creation" ( khalqu-l jadīd )

23.1 By New Creation (khalqu-l jadīd) is meant the constant renewal of being in every single moment of time, and not a single act of creation is from nothing. This renewal happens much faster than human perception can perceive.

23.2 It follows from this theory, usually referred to by the Qur'anic term "new creation" (khalqu-l jadīd), that two consequent temporal states of the world are not related to each other as cause and effect. Each further state of the world is defined not by the preceding one, but by the way in which the inner relations of Divine unity will be embodied in the given moment. Cause-and-effect relations are renewed (they start anew) at each moment of time. They are in fact eternity-to-time relations: each essence, considered in its temporality, is effect, but regarded as an unmanifested inner correlation of Divinity, is cause.

Go deeper: On The Self-Disclosure of God Ibn ʿArabi

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24. Futuwwah ( Chivalry) /pt.1

24.1 Futuwwah is Generosity, Trustworthiness…
Meaning youth and chivalry, Futuwwah, as a term,[40] is a composite of virtues such as generosity, munificence, modesty, chastity, trustworthiness, loyalty, mercifulness, knowledge, humility and piety, and it is one of the stations a traveler on the path to Allah passes by and a dimension of sainthood.

24.2 Sum of the four virtues
- Forgiving when one is able to punish.
- Preserving mildness and acting mildly and gently when one is furious.
- Wishing even one's enemies well and doing them good.
- Always being considerate of the well-being and happiness of others first even when one is needy.

24.3 Others Can Be Forgiven
Futuwwah is knowing that others can be forgiven for their misdeeds,
but you yourself are always at fault;
that everyone and everything else is complete,
while you yourself are lacking.

Futuwwah is showing understanding and compassion equally to what appears good and what appears bad.

The highest form of Futuwwah is when nothing occupies you but Allah."
Abu ʿAbdullah al-Sajazi in FUT99[L]

more on futuwwa at: part.2 below

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25. The Lawful - Halāl

25.1 The Lawful Halāl is the Way to Allah
The lawful Halāl is that by which one comes near to Allah.
It is the way of Allah.
It is righteousness, obedience, good deeds, charity, and fairness. It is the way of those on the path al- salikīn, and the method of those intending Allah and worshipping Him; it is that which is travelled by everyone who desires Allah and follows the way of self-denial zuhd and religious practice, and what is called poverty and Sufism and the like. Ibn Taymiyya*

25.2 Comment: this 'approach' is in knowledge of Allah, in devotion, good deeds, seeking justice…

*more… Ibn Taymiyya on the lawful & ch. 1.8 Human Acts

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26. Some Notes On Sufism (tasawwuf)

26.1 It “consists in cleansing the heart from whatever is other than Allah.”

According to Al-Ghazali in al-Munqidh - more

26.2 When we see someone in this Community who claims to be able to guide others to Allah, but is remiss in but one rule of the Sacred Law - even if he manifests miracles that stagger the mind - asserting that his shortcorning is a special dispensation for him, we do not even turn to look at him, for such a person is not a sheikh, nor is he speaking the truth, for no one is entrusted with the secrets of Allah Most High save one in whom the ordinances of the Sacred Law are preserved. Muhyiddin ibn al-ʿArabi (ra)

Muhyiddin ibn al-ʿArabi (ra) (Jamiʿ karamat al-awliya' (y95) 1.3) in: RT s4.7[L]

26.3 The primacy of the Shariʿa forms the soundest tradition in Sufism.

According to Ibn Taymiyya - more

'The Sufi among Jurists is better than the Jurist among Sufis.'

see below 26.5

26.4 Sufism is a knowledge through which one knows the states of the human soul, praiseworthy or blameworthy, how to purify it from the blameworthy and ennoble it by acquiring the praiseworthy, and to journey and proceed to Allah Most High, fleeing unto Him.

Its fruits are the heart's development, knowledge of God through direct experience and ecstasy, salvation in the next world, triumph through gaining Allah's pleasure, the attainment of eternal happiness, and illuminating and purifying the heart so that noble matters disclose themselves, extraordinary states are revealed, and one perceives what the insight of others is blind to. Muhammad Amin Kurdi*

Reality of Tasawwuf (Sufism), Sh Yusuf al-Sayyid Hashim al-Rafaï, *Muhammad Amin Kurdi
From: Reality of 'Tasawwuf' (sufism)
Read further: What is Sufism by GF Haddad
Read further: Al-Junayd on Sufism, by GF Haddad

26.5 The way of the Sufis consists in ten items:

(1) The reality of tasawwuf which is defined by truthful self-orientation (sidq al-tawajjuh) to Allah Most High. Shaykh al-ʿArusi
Show more down Sufism in Islam

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27. Prayer - salah

27.1 When you face the qiblah [direction towards the Kaʿba], you should despair of this world, what it contains of creation and what others are occupied with. Empty your heart of every preoccupation which might distract you from Allah. See the immensity of Allah with your innermost being, and remember that you will stand before Him. Jaʿfar As-Sādiq LP60[L]

27.2 Someone said that the soul of prayer is complete absorbtion; it is a state of unconciousness which has no room for form, outward or inward, no room for thought or imagination. SR201[L]

27.3 Hadith from the Messenger of Allah ﷺ :

Prayer is the miraj (union with, or annihilation in, the Divine Essence by means of continual upward progress) of the Faithful.

He whom prayer preventeth not from wrongdoing and evil, increaseth in naught save in remoteness from the Lord. [44]

Read further: - prayer giving pleasure Al-Suyuti, The Medicine of the Prophet

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28. Innovation bid'a

28.1 Hadith, Prophet Muhammad ﷺ said:

“Every new matter (kullu muhdathatin) is an innovation (bidʿa), every innovation is misguidance (dalala), and every misguidance is in the Fire.”

For narrators of this hadith, see The Meaning of Bidʿa

What is meant by the hadith “Every new matter is an innovation” is the innovation that contravene the texts of the Law. That, and that alone, is the innovation of misguidance.

28.2 H.ujjat al-Islām al-Ghazzālī said:

The fact that this (adding of dots to the Qur'anic script) is innovated (muh.dath) forms no impediment to this. How many innovated matters are excellent! As it was said concerning the establishing of congregations in Tarāwīh. that it was among the innovations of ʿUmar (ra) and that it was an excellent innovation (bidʿa h.asana). The blameworthy bidʿa is only what opposes the ancient Sunna or might lead to changing it.

28.3 Another clear definition

”The Shari’ah terminology of of bidʿa however means anything that has been introduced into the beliefs and actions of the Muslims that is in direct opposition to the Qur’an or the Sunnah, or anything that distorts the Sunnah or claims to be better than the Sunnah.”

Read further: The Sunni Definition of Bidʿa As Either Good or Bad
Read further: The Meaning Of Bid'a
Read further: What Is Bidʿa (Innovation)? categories of innovations

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29. Fanā wa baqā

29.1 Witnessing but Allah Alone
Fanā means that you don't witness but Allah alone, not any more yourself. This happens when the veil is removed, but in reality it is not Allah who is veiled but you!

29.2 What is meant by attaining the contact with Allah (Almighty and Glorious is He) is that you make your exit from the sphere of creation, from passion and will and desire, and become securely linked to His action, so that no movement of yours affects either you or His creation unless by His decree, at His command and through His action this is the state of annihilation (fana'), which is another term for that contact.

Al-Fanā’ - The Disappearance, Imam Ahmed Valsan

29.3 The dissolution of the ego[4], however, is not the denial or suppression or invalidation of the human person. In my personhood, I am a living face of God; the ego (nafs) is simply all that stands between me and this knowledge. My recognized nothingness is nothing but my liberation from the illusory burden of my own self-creation. In Sufi terms, the other side of my annihilation in God - fanā - is my subsistence in God - baqā. Subsisting in Him, I know myself completely contingent upon Him; I see how I, in my unique personhood, am precisely as God wills me to be. God recognizes a certain aspect of Himself in me alone; no other person, object or entity can fill that role. At the root of my uniqueness is my annihilation. SAC175 [L]

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30. Poor-due, taxes - zakāt & sadaqah

30.1.1 Linguistically zakāt means growth, and purification.
The shariʿah definition of zakāt is: the name for that which is taken from one's wealth for a specific purpose, ie. to those who are valid recipients, which is a duty upon the one who has the capacity to give.

30.1.2 ) Zakāt is a charity or tax of 2.5% of the untouched or surplus wealth over a (lunar) year. It is for purifying wealth and bringing it back into economic circulation, especially for the poor and needy, the disenfranchised and maginalized classes of society.

→ For Sadaqah go to 17.


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31. Trust in Allah - tawakkul

31.1) All knowledge (al-ʿilm) is but a branch of worship (at-taʿabbud)
and all worship is but a branch of abstinence (al-waraʿ)
and all abstinence is but a branch of trust in Allah (tawakkul)
and trust in Allah (tawakkul) has neither limit nor finite end.
Imam Abu Talib al-Makki, Qut al-qulub

31.2) Sarī al-Saqaṭī said: "Trust (tawakkul) is the stripping off of power and strength."[7] Ibn Masrūq said: "Trust is resignation to the course of the decrees of fate." Sahl said: "Trust is being at ease before Allah."[8]

قال سهل التوكّل الاسترسال بين يدي الله تعاﻟﯽ

Related: Sahl Al-Tustari Section 2, 11

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32. Knowledge - ʿilm

32.1 All knowledge (al-ʿilm) is but a branch of worship (see above 31. )

32.2 Knowledge of four objects:

The objects of knowledge (al-ma`lūmāt) are four:

1st. God, Allah who is not defined by any definition, nor limited by any limitation while He is the Absolute Concious Being (al-wujūd al-mutlaq). He is neither the effect (ma`lūl), nor the cause of anything (`illa). On the contrary he exists through His very Essence and His existence is not other than His Essence.

Knowledge of Him consists of knowledge that He exists.
His Essence remains unknown, whereas the Attributes that are attributed to Him are known. Knowledge of the reality of His Essence (haqīqat al-dhāt) is impossible and to dwell on it leads to /confusion/.

2nd. The second object of knowledge is the Universal Reality (al-haqīqat al-kulliyya).
This reality is eternal when the Eternal is described by it (it belongs to God), and it is temporally originated when the temporally originated is described by it (it belongs to the world). So it is qualified neither by existence nor non-existence, neither by temporal origination nor eternity (al-qidam). No objects of knowledge - whether eternal or temporally originated - are known until this reality is known, but this reality does not exist until those things described by it exist.
• Eternal existent: it exists without a precedent nonexistence (`adam mutaqaddim), such as the Being of God and His Attributes.
• Temporally originated: it exists by means of something other than itself, such as the existence of everything other than God (mā siwā Allāh).
• The likeness of it would be the quality of wood in timber, in a chair etc. 'Woodness' lie within the reality of any of these things. //

3rd. The third object of knowledge is the entire world (al-mulk al-akbar).

4th. The fourth object of knowledge is man.

Source: Ibn Al-ʿArabi; from Fūtuhāt Al-Makiyya; 118.33 ff
Related: Sacred Knowledge: How to Seek It And Be Saved By It?

32.3 Advice for the seeker of sacred knowledge

32.3.1 Advice #1

It is narrated from Abu al-Dardā':
Be a scholar,
or a student,
or a listener;
don't be the fourth type and thus destroy yourself.

□ comment: Therefore ask yourself:
Am I a scholar? then you have certain duties (incl. patience, abstinence), if not
→ are you a student? then you have the duties (incl. patience, perseverance) and rights of a student (the right to be taught), if not
→ you should at least be a listener while being in the company of more knowledgeable persons, not to argue or debate, but to be attentive and focused as much as possible to what is said and taught.

Related: Spiritual Realisation - Advice By Ibn Arabi
Related: Abu Ddarda, when he adressed the people of Damascus

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33. Knowledge of (Shariʿah -) Fiqh

33.1 "Fiqh is to know what is for and against oneself."
Imam Abu Hanifa (Allah be pleased with him)

33.2 The word fiqh, originally meaning 'insight', came to signify religious knowledge, canon law, dogmatic or speculative theology and jurisprudence. CEI361[L]

33.3 Shariʿah is more than Fiqh. It covers not only ritual but every aspect of life.
It is the revealed law as put forth in the Quran and Sunnah and elaborated by the four orthodox schools (madhabib). CEI361[L]

33.4 The Prophet ﷺ peace be upon him said:
”One person who knows his fiqh is more difficult for shaytan than a thousand worshippers who don’t know their fiqh.”
Narrated on the authority of Ibn Abbas raDiy-Allahu-anhu.gif may Allah be pleased with him in Sunan Ibn Majjah

See above: 6. Islamic Law - shariʿah

The usul al-fiqh (roots of jurisprudence) are the basis of Islamic law.
Every act fits into one of the categories, as listed here.

Go deeper: Answers to Fiqh-Questions, Al-Ghazali

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34. Afflictions - fitna; fitan

34.1 fitna; fitan: awesome trial(s) of deceptive attractions
When times are such that people lose their faith, when killing will abound, knowledge (that is knowledge of God and religion) is being taken away, including the Muslim who does not know about his or her Islam, then these are the times of great trials of deceptive attractions as foretold by the Messenger of Allah ﷺ, who had knowledge of the Unseen* al-ghaib . He warned people and told us what to do, because there will be seemingly important man (and women), seemingly calling to goodness but they are false leaders, blind guiding the blind, leading to Hell. HAU?[L]

What to do:
- Guarding your faith imān,
- and other actions to take.

34.2 In times of fitna, do this acc. to the prophetic hadith:
تَأْخُذُونَ مَا تَعْرِفُونَ وَتَذَرُونَ مَا تُنْكِرُونَ وَتُقْبِلُونَ عَلَى أَمْرِ خَاصَّتِكُمْ وَتَذَرُونَ أَمْرَ عَامَّتِكُمْ
“Keep to what you recognize as good and leave off what you recognize as evil. Turn your attention to your own personal affairs and leave off the affairs of the masses.”
Source: Sunan Abī Dāwūd 4342 [45]

*the Unseen - see: - 80 Hadiths on the Prophet's Knowledge of the Unseen

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35. The Four Obstacles to Obedience

Because the abode of this world is founded on hardship and trial, kneaded with trouble and distress, and filled with preoccupations and distractions, the things that divert one away from acts of obedience abound, as are those things that incite to transgression. These distractions are numerous, but may be reduced to four categories:
- The first is ignorance,
- the second weakness of faith,
- the third long hopes, and
- the fourth eating illicit or dubious food.
Imam al-Haddad[6] Then the imam goes into detail in what follows.

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36. Abstinence (zuhd)

Al-Junayd said:
الزهد خلو الأيدﯼ من الاملاك و القلوب من التتبع
“Abstinence is when the hands are void of possessions, and the heart of acquisitiveness.”
‘Ali ibn Abi Talib كرم الله وجهه, being asked what the nature of abstinence is, replied:
هو أن لاتبالي مَن أكل الدنيا من مؤمن أو كافر
“It means, that one does not care who consumes (the things of) this world, be he believer or unbeliever.”
Al-Shibli, being asked concerning abstinence, said: “Alas for you! What value is there in that which is less than the wing of a gnat, that abstinence must needs be exercised concerning it?” [Ref. hadith below:]

أَتُرَوْنَ هَذِهِ هَيِّنَةً عَلَى صَاحِبِهَا فَوَالَّذِي نَفْسِي بِيَدِهِ لَلدُّنْيَا أَهْوَنُ عَلَى اللَّهِ مِنْ هَذِهِ عَلَى صَاحِبِهَا وَلَوْ كَانَتِ الدُّنْيَا تَزِنُ عِنْدَ اللَّهِ جَنَاحَ بَعُوضَةٍ مَا سَقَى كَافِرًا مِنْهَا قَطْرَةً أَبَدًا

“We were with the Messenger of Allah ﷺ in Dhul-Hulaifah, when we saw a dead sheep lifting its leg (because of bloating). He said: ‘Don’t you think this is worthless to its owner? By the One in Whose hand is my soul, this world is more worthless to Allah than this (dead sheep) is to its owner. If this world was worth the wing of a mosquito to Allah, the disbeliever would not have a drop to drink from it.’
It was narrated that Sahl bin Sa’d said this.[17]

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37. Vigilence (murāqabah)

37.1 murāqabah is Awareness, Vigilence, Close Attention

37.2 murāqabah is knowing that Allah is watching over us. Its is the servant's constant awareness of this fact. If you find in your heart… [n2]

Allah سبحانه و تعالى says:

{ وَاعْلَمُوا أَنَّ اللّٰهَ يَعْلَمُ مَا فِي أَنفُسِكُمْ فَاحْذَرُوهُ }
{ And know that Allah knows what is in your minds, so fear Him. } 2-235

{ وَكَانَ اللّٰهُ عَلَىٰ كُلِّ شَيْءٍ رَّقِيبًا }
{ And Allah is Ever a Watcher over all things. } 33-52 [18]

In the hadith of Jibril, when he asked the Prophet about ihsan (goodness and excellence), the Prophet replied,
أَنْ تَعْبُدَ اللّٰهَ كَأَنَّك تَرَاهُ فَإِنْ لَمْ تَكُنْ تَرَاهُ فَإِنَّهُ يَرَاك
"Ihsan is to worship Allah as if you see Him, but since we do not see Him we should know that He sees us at all times." Bukhari and Muslim

37.3 What is meant in this hadith is to have this certain knowledge that Allah is watching over our internal and external affairs, seeing us at all times. This sacred knowledge will lead to our murāqabah (vigilance/ close attention/ awareness).

Al-Junaid said, "The one firm in murāqabah fears the waste of even a moment for other than his Lord."

Dhun-Nun said, "The sign of murāqabah is to favor what Allah has sent down (of the revelation), to glorify what Allah has glorified, and to despise what Allah has despised." [19]

Source: (sunnahonline.com > purification-of-the-soul) Station of murāqabah

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38. Muhāsabah (taking account)

38.1 Muhāsabah is using the instrument of reason (38.2) for self-examination - while anticipating the Great Examination (Judgement Day) that will certainly come.
So that self-examination will lead up to spiritual awareness of one’s thoughts, intentions and acts, and therefore to be equipped avoiding evil and doing good instead, thereby seeking the good pleasure of Allah, the Lord of the worlds.

38.2 The root of the word Hāsaba has been described by Al-Ghazali as calculating/ counting. It is about evaluation one’s thoughts, intentions and actions through the intermediate of reason, that reason which is informed by the 'sharp distinguisher' (furqān), that is the Quranic revelation and the beauty of the prophetic example - may Allah bless him and grant him peace. See Ihya, IH-IV-419 [L]

38.3 Not free from temptation or remiss!
Then there is this warning by Imam Al-Ghazali:
"However much Allah’s servant examines his soul, it will be free neither of the temptation to sin nor of being remiss in respect of God’s right. Therefore, he must not neglect his soul. Neglecting it facilitates his temptation to sin, to which his soul may grow accustomed and then find it difficult to shed it. This is what causes the ruin of the soul. Indeed, he must punish it."

- Go deeper: (archive.org) Ghazali On Vigilance And Selfexamination, murāqabah wa muhāsabah

38.4 Imām Al-Muhāsibi is credited with founding the school or practice of Muhāsabah, he authored the 'Book of observance of the rights of Allah' ’Kitab al-riʿaya li huqūq Allah’. It’s about the idea of taking oneself (i.e. one’s soul, nafs) to account before it is taken to account on the Day of Judgement, when a return to the world of activity is closed.

38.5 The Trifle Worth Of This World [ad-dunyā]
This ’accounting activity’ is closely coupled to the knowledge of the trifle worth of this world (see ch. muraqaba).
Hasan al-Basri practiced it and it was most probably practiced by the Sahabah, for how can one lead a life of God consciousness (taqwa), if one is unaware of one’s intentions and acts?

38.6 Two Sayings by Imām Al-Muhāsibi
”One who rectifies his inner self with an awareness of God’s surveillance and sincerity, God adorns his outer self with devotional acts and adherence to the prophetic way (Sunnah).”

“Everything has an essence. The essence of a human being is his intellect, and the essence of his intellect is patience.”

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39. Ihsan - Excellence in All Things

39.1 Personal Accomplishment
The personal accomplishment and fulfillment in religion is ihsān, (spiritual excellence, benevolence, doing good).

أَنْ تَعْبُدَ اللّٰهَ كَأَنَّك تَرَاهُ فَإِنْ لَمْ تَكُنْ تَرَاهُ فَإِنَّهُ يَرَاك
"Ihsan is to worship Allah as if you see Him, and if you cannot see Him, then be sure that He is seeing you." Bukhari and Muslim

more about Islam and ihsan

39.2 Excellence in Acting
People of realization, gnosis, clear vision, and certitude give precedence to excellence (iḥsān) in acting over the act itself. For the outward form of acts, whether ritual Prayer, Fasting, recitation [of the Quran], or invocation of God, will be nothing but hardship and toil of no benefit in the absence of thoroughness and excellence in performance, perfection of the inner dimensions, reverence before God, humility, submission, attention, and the courtesy of behavior that befits that holy, sublime, and august presence (of Allah).[43] Imam Al-Haddad [L]

39.3 Benevolence

{ إِنَّ اللَّهَ يَأْمُرُ بِالْعَدْلِ وَالْإِحْسَانِ وَإِيتَاءِ ذِي الْقُرْبَىٰ وَيَنْهَىٰ عَنِ الْفَحْشَاءِ وَالْمُنكَرِ وَالْبَغْيِ يَعِظُكُمْ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَذَكَّرُونَ }
{ Allah commands justice, the doing of good (iḥsān), and giving to kinsfolk, and He forbids all shameful deeds, and injustice and rebellion (immorality, bad conduct and oppression): He instructs/ admonishes you, that ye may receive admonition. } 16-90

An explanation of this verse
"Justice (ʿadl)" is professing ‘there is no god but God and Muhammad is the Messenger of God’, and adhering to the Sunna of His Prophet ﷺ; and "benevolence" (ihsan) is that you do good to each other, and "giving to kinsfolk" means that whoever God has provided for in abundance should give to those among his relatives for whom God has made him responsible… Al-Tustari TT109u [L]

39.4 Those who followed in excellence (ihsan)

{ وَأَمَّا إِن كَانَ مِنْ أَصْحَابِ الْيَمِينِ }
{ And if he be of those of the right (hand). } 56-90

By which is meant those who realise God’s oneness (muwaḥḥidūn). The outcome (‘āqiba) will be theirs,[25] for they were God’s faithful servants who delivered the trust (amāna),[26] namely, that which He has commanded and prohibited. Those who followed [the religious directives] in excellence (ihsan) did not commit any transgressions nor did they make any slips, so they became secure from the fear (khawf) and terror (hawl) which comes to (others). Al-Tustari, TT219 [L]

Islam, Iman, Ihsan The Gibril - hadith

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40. Futuwwa /pt.2

40.1 Conditions for Futuwwa
”He who is among the people of futuwwah must also be good and possess justice, fairness and equity.” Suhrawardi
Also: manly virtue, sacrifice, hospitality, nobility, compassion.

40.2 futuwwa is derived from fata, (young to medium aged adult man btw. 18 - 40y). The ideal fata, who is exemplified by ʿAli كرم الله وجهه is characterized by selflessness, courage, generosity and honor. FUT20 [L]

40.3 A definition of futuwwa from the Quranic episode of 21-60, the fata 'young man' Ibrahim[34]:
"The fata is he who breaks the idol."
Qushayri then immediately adds the comment: "And the idol of each man in his ego nafs." (reported by Qushayri) FUT21 [L]

40.4 First Step on This Path
On the path of the destruction of the illusionary ego nafs, and the unveiling of Unique Reality, the fata must first learn not to love his ego, and has to be taught by his shaykh to love others [35] before himself, and to love God - Allah above all. FUT22 [L]

40.5 Every Moment
All who enter the path of Futuwwah are under Allah's direction and protection.
(O my son), may Allah accord you His pleasure.
You asked about Futuwwah. Know that Futuwwah means following the ordinances of perfect devotion, leaving all evil, and attaining in action and in thought the best of visible and hidden good conduct. Every condition and every moment demand from you one aspect of Futuwwah.[36] From Sulami's Introduction FUT36[L]

40.6 One Hadith and one saying on Futuwwah [42]
Bring joy into the lives of your friends and meet their needs.
The Messenger of Allah (the blessings and peace of Allah upon him) said:
“When one brings joy with his words into the life of a believer or satisfies his worldly needs, whether small or large, it becomes an obligation upon Allah to offer him a servant on the Day of Last Judgment.” (Anas ibn Malik)

Ja‘far al-Sadiq was once asked, ‘‘What is Futuwwan? He replied: ‘‘Futuwwah is not possible with quarreling backbiting. Futuwwah is feeding people, giving to them, being pleasant and honorable to them, and not causing difficulties.” FUT64 [L]

40.7 Futuwwah and the Law (Shariah)
”There are many things that are impermissible according to both futuwwa and muruwwah,[41] but may still be permissible under the Holy Law.” Suhrawardi

Comment [37]
”The Law defines what is actionable and formally assessed. But there may be a lot of things, where the Shariah seems to make something technically legal, but where futuwwa, this inward mercy, compassion and justice, will say the thing may have to be looked at differently, but without the law being violated.” Abdul Hakim Murad [38]

Show more down

more on futuwwa at: part.1 above

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41. Allah سبحانه و تعالى (God)

41.1 Allah (may His Majesty be exalted)
The apex of knowledge of Allah is to know that He exists without a direction or place. Sayyid Ahmad al-Rifaʿi [46]

more: About Allah

{ فَاطِرُ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ جَعَلَ لَكُم مِن أَنفُسِكُم أَزْوَاجًا وَمِنَ الْأَنْعَامِ أَزْوَاجًا يَذْرَؤُكُمْ فِيهِ لَيْسَ كَمِثْلِهِ شَيْءٌ وَهُوَ السَّمِيعُ البَصِيرُ }

{The Originator of the heavens and the earth; He has appointed for you, of yourselves, pairs, and pairs also of the cattle, therein multiplying you. Like Him there is naught; He is the All-hearing, the All-seeing.

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- - - - -

BA, CEI, NB, RT, KAM, IDM, ISKA, KWH[43], LSIS, DI, DS[8], KS, LP, SR, SAC, MOO, FUT[42], HAU are abbreviations for books from this [booklist].

"In any case, what Westerners call civilization, the others would call barbarity, because it is precisely lacking in the essential, that is to say, a principle of a higher order."
René Guénon, East And West, 1924

صلّى الله على سيّدنا محمّد و على آله و صحبه و سلّم

The blessings and peace of Allah on the Prophet, his Family, and his Companions, ( sallAllahu `aleihi wa sallam ) .

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Related texts
link-inGlossary written by Sh G F Haddad:
A Concise Sunni Glossary of Fiqh, Hadīth, Kalām, and Tasawwuf
link-inGlossary written by Sh Muhammad Afifi al-Akiti:
Fiqh, Astronomy, Islamic general terms

  1. More here:
    - Glossary written by Sh G F Haddad:
    A Concise Sunni Glossary of Fiqh, Hadīth, Kalām, and Tasawwuf
    - Glossary written by Sh Muhammad Afifi al-Akiti:
    Fiqh, Astronomy, Islamic general terms

  2. Related:
    - al-Junayd about the superiority of the struggle against the ego (jihad al-nafs)
    - Quranic Definitions, hadith on jihad
    - ad-dīn, the religion of Islam, hadith on jihad
    - The Islamic Response to Terrorism
    - An-Nawawi above quote (7.7) on treating the illnesses of the soul

  3. On the Human Acts of Those Morally Responsible - af'āl al-mukallifīn
    (according to the Shāfi'i school there is no distinction between fard and wājib except concerning the pilgrimage, from RT)

    & Arabic
    How has Allah, the Lawgiver defined the act: someone who performs it
    - - -
    someone who refrains from it
    obligatory act
    that which the Lawgiver strictly requires be done he is rewarded, if it is performed out of obedience to Allah
    - - -
    If he refrains from it without excuse deserves to be punished
    the sunna / recommended act
    sunna/ mandūb
    that which the Lawgiver asks be done, but does not strictly require he is rewarded, if it is performed out of obedience to Allah
    - - -
    someone who refrains from it is not punished
    the permissible act
    that which the Lawgiver has neither requested nor prohibited the person who does it is not rewarded nor is he punished

    (though if a person does it to enable him to perform an act of obedience to Allah, then he is rewarded for it)
    - - -
    the person who refrains from it is not rewarded or punished

    (though if a person does such an act to enable him to perform an act of disobedience - he is sinning)
    the offensive act
    that which the Lawgiver has interdicted but not strictly forbidden the person who commits it does not deserve to be punished
    - - -
    the person who refrains from such an act out of obedience to Allah is rewarded
    the unlawful act
    that which the Lawgiver strictly forbids someone who commits an unlawful act deserves punishment
    - - -
    someone who refrains from it out of obedience to the command of Allah is rewarded. RT30[L]

    - more on the categories for human actions in: The Meaning Of Sunna
    - more on the time for action.
    - more on islam and action
    - read: Act in such a way that ... ( hadith)
    - works are: realization of faith (iman)
    - can the mind know: if actions are good or bad?
    - read: Allah's blessings for good works
    - more on human actions the five legal categories for ~
    - more here: A Concise Sunni Glossary of Fiqh, H.adīth, Kalām, and Tas.awwuf

  4. Go deeper: On the soul: nafs

  5. Imam ʿAbdallah Ibn Alawi Al-Haddad
    "The Book Of Assistance" [BA][L], chapter on vigilance (murāqabah), UK 1989

  6. Imam ʿAbdallah Ibn Alawi Al-Haddad
    "Mutual Reminding" p. 15
    "We shall briefly discuss each of these four, God willing, to demonstrate how blameworthy they truly are and to show how to guard oneself and free oneself from them. Success is from God."
    He continues: "As for ignorance, it is the origin of all evil, the root of every harm…"

  7. By saying, and believing, that "there is no power or strength save with Allah". DS92

  8. The Doctrine of the Sufis, Al-Kalābādhī, p.92 DS92, kitāb at-taʿarruf li-madhhab ahl at-tasawwuf; (goodreads.com) The Doctrine of the Sufis

  9. (globalsadaqah.com) Hadith About Sadaqah

  10. It was narrated from Abu Hurairah that the Prophet ﷺ said, “When a man dies all his good deeds come to an end except three: Ongoing charity (sadaqah jariyah), beneficial knowledge and a righteous son who prays for him.” Sunan an-Nasa’i

  11. Here is another saying of ʿAli ibn Abi Talib (kAw)
    مَنْ أَيقَنَ بِالْخَلَفِ جَادَ بِالْعَطيَّةِ
    man ayqana bi-l khalafi jāda bi-l ʿaṭiyati
    "He who is sure of a good return is generous in giving."
    Saying of ʿAli ibn Abi Talib كرم الله وجهه in NB520 no.138 (a: 136)[L],
    the first one is in NB520 no.137 (a: 135)[L]

    See above two more sayings of ʿAli ibn Abi Talib كرم الله وجهه concerning actions and alms.

  12. hadith:
    “Guard yourself from the Hellfire, even with half of a date in charity. If one cannot find it, then with a kind word.”

  13. tinge: a trace of a colour. or a slight trace of a feeling or quality

  14. RT803, Reliance of the Traveller, p.803

  15. DS90, see footnote 8

  16. "Whatever act of goodness you are able to do, you must do. Should you have to choose, then choose the better and more perfect one. With regard to what you are unable to do, you should have a sincere intention to do it whenever it becomes possible."
    KWH42, Knowledge and Wisdom, Al-Fusul al-Ilmiyya wa-l-Usul al-Hikmiyya; Imam Al-Haddad

  17. حَدَّثَنَا هِشَامُ بْنُ عَمَّارٍ، وَإِبْرَاهِيمُ بْنُ الْمُنْذِرِ الْحِزَامِيُّ، وَمُحَمَّدُ بْنُ الصَّبَّاحِ، قَالُوا حَدَّثَنَا أَبُو يَحْيَى، زَكَرِيَّا بْنُ مَنْظُورٍ حَدَّثَنَا أَبُو حَازِمٍ، عَنْ سَهْلِ بْنِ سَعْدٍ، قَالَ كُنَّا مَعَ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ ـ صلى الله عليه وسلم ـ بِذِي الْحُلَيْفَةِ فَإِذَا هُوَ بِشَاةٍ مَيِّتَةٍ شَائِلَةٍ بِرِجْلِهَا فَقَالَ ‏ "‏ أَتُرَوْنَ هَذِهِ هَيِّنَةً عَلَى صَاحِبِهَا فَوَالَّذِي نَفْسِي بِيَدِهِ لَلدُّنْيَا أَهْوَنُ عَلَى اللَّهِ مِنْ هَذِهِ عَلَى صَاحِبِهَا وَلَوْ كَانَتِ الدُّنْيَا تَزِنُ عِنْدَ اللَّهِ جَنَاحَ بَعُوضَةٍ مَا سَقَى كَافِرًا مِنْهَا قَطْرَةً أَبَدًا ‏"‏ ‏.‏

  18. Any many other similar verses, such as this verse:

    { And He is with you wherever you may be. } 57-4

  19. It has been said that, the best that man may cling to on this road to Allah is [muhāsabah] (reckoning of the self), murāqabah, and governing his conduct with knowledge.

  20. "The first act was for the passions of the lower self (nafs), and the second act for obedience to Allah."

  21. The regret over the loss of its fruits.

  22. In the Shafi‘i school there is no difference between obligatory (fard) and requisite (wajib) except in the pilgrimage, where nonperformance of a requisite does not invalidate the pilgrimage, but necessitates an expiation by slaughtering. For any act of worship, obligatory or nonobligatory, all conditions necessary for its validity and all of its integrals (rukn, pl. arkan) are obligatory, since it is unlawful to intentionally perform an invalid act of worship. RT30[L]

  23. Saying could not be sourced.

  24. The complete saying:
    عن أبي نعيم قال أبو سليمان رحمه الله الْفِكْرُ فِي الدُّنْيَا حِجَابٌ عَنِ الآخِرَةِ وَعُقُوبَةٌ لأَهْلِ الْوَلايَةِ وَالْفِكْرَةُ فِي الآخِرَةِ تُورِثُ الْحِكْمَةَ وَتُحْيِي الْقَلْبَ وَمَنْ نَظَرَ إِلَى الدُّنْيَا مُوَلِّيَةً صَحَّ عِنْدَهُ غُرُورُهَا

    Abu Nu’aym reported: Abu Sulayman, may Allah have mercy on him, said, “Thinking about the world is a veil over the Hereafter and a punishment for people. Thinking about the Hereafter produces wisdom and life in the heart. Whoever looks to the world as his protector will come to accept its delusions.”
    Source: Ḥilyat al-Awliyā’ 14447

  25. i.e. they will be the winners that day, the Day of Resurrection

  26. Probably an allusion to 33-72 {We offered you…} [see amana text, i5]

  27. orchard: a piece of enclosed land planted with fruit trees

  28. mildness, gentleness, forbearance, patience, discernment, understanding, reason

  29. bi-la kaif: without asking 'how'.

  30. see Nawawi on "Actions are according to intentions" G F Haddad

  31. On The Ranks of Dhikr Ibn ʿAta' Allah said: "The one who utters the Word of Oneness (kalimāt al-tawhīd = La ilaha illallah = no god but the One God) needs three lights:
    the light of guidance (Nūr al-hidāya),
    the light of sufficiency (nūr al-kifāya), and
    the light of divine help (nūr al-ʿināya).

    Whoever God graces with the first light, he is immune (maʿsum) from associating a partner to God;

    whoever God graces with the second light, he is immune from committing great sins and indecencies;

    and whoever God graces with the third light, he is protected (mahfuz) from the corrupt thoughts and motions that typify those given to heedless actions.

    The first light belongs to
    - "those who wrong themselves,"
    the second to
    - "those that are lukewarm," and
    the third to
    - "those who outstrip others through good deeds."

    Source: Six Benefits of Dhikr GFH

  32. Imam al-Haddad: Saying that no repose exists in the world and that man seeks in the world that which was never part of it, this refers to total untroubled repose for people with perspicacity and intelligence. This is evident. As for the fool and the mindless, they may find relaxation. This is why it was said, “The mindless are relaxed.” It was something akin to this that al-Mutanabbi alluded to when he said:

    Untroubled is the life of one who is ignorant or
    heedless of what has elapsed and what remains;
    and of one who deludes his soul of reality
    and leads it to seek the impossible that it craves.

    He also said:

    By his intelligence does a man see hardship in bliss,
    while the ignorant sees nothing in wretchedness but bliss.

    And God knows best.

  33. ”This is perhaps one of the differences between ideological religion as it is sometimes taunted nowadays, which is essentially totalitatarian, and classical religion which allows us to grow into those positive, divine gifts, which each one of us has within him- or herself.”
    AHM: (youtube.com) Imam Ali (ra) – Abdal Hakim Murad: Paradigms of Leadership

  34. K 21-60. also as fityaan in 18-10, 18-13; also 18-60, 18-62

  35. to love others in this case embraces the totality of creatures, not only humankind. Ibn ʿArabi (Futuhat I, 244; II 233) emphasizes that the generosity of the fata must extend to the mineral, vegetal, and animal kingdoms. FUT26 [L]

  36. cont: There is no state or time without that demand. There is a Futuwwah fit for your behavior toward God, another toward the Prophet (the blessings and peace of Allah upon him), and others toward his companions; yet others toward the pure ones of the past, your sheikh, your brotherhood, and the two angels on your shoulders who keep the accounting of your deeds. FUT26[L]

  37. Source: (youtube.com) Imam Ali (ra) – Abdal Hakim Murad: Paradigms of Leadership

  38. Two examples:

    So for instance, somebody with a wife, might say: "it is Halal for me", and the fatwa will say, "I might take a second wife." That is not the same as saying it is morally right for me to do that. It is meerely to say it is legal according to the outward structure of the religion.
    So something can be in futuwwa improper and religiously not right if it is the kind of situation that is going to cause tribulation and injustice. But outwardly it can be valid.


    Someone says: ”I want to fly 1st class to Bali.” The Sharia is not going to say you can’t do that. But from the futuwwa point of view it might be kind of inappropriate.”

    The Sharia is not there to regulate those things.
    That is in the area of the mubāh (the permissible act)[n1], but it may still be improper.

  39. ”This does not mean that futuwwa and muruwwa contradict the Holy Law. However the attribute of the people of futuwwa is that if someone does something bad to them, then they do something good in return, according to the formality of the Shariah, they can carry out a bad act in retribution for a bad act.” AHM [37]

    For example if s-o slanders you, you should pray for this person.
    If he deprives you, then at the time when you are in need, you should give him something.
    If he runs away from you, adhere to him faithfully and do not desert him.”
    If he hits or strikes, forgive him.
    This is futuwwa and muruwwah.
    And it’s the same as the speech of truth.
    This is because forgiving is derived from mercy, justice is derived from the Holy Law. AHM [37]

    The holy Prophet ﷺ said: I’m the city of knowledge and Ali is its gate.

  40. Compare with the concept of chivalry from the Middle Ages:
    Is it surprising that around the time the crusaders came to West Asia - today's Lebanon, Syria and occupied Palestine, where they marauded and killed Muslims (and Christians and Jews) "in the name of God!" and then despite all this hatred and enmity they seemed to have picked up some things, which they were very much devoid of: chivalry, which is so defined in the Oxford English Dictionary:

    1 the medieval knightly system with its religious, moral, and social code: the age of chivalry.
    • the combination of qualities expected of an ideal knight, namely courage, honour, courtesy, justice, and a readiness to help the weak: tales of chivalry and knightly deeds.
    • courteous behaviour, especially that of a man towards women: he still retained a sense of chivalry towards women.

    Here a witness from this time: oliver-von-paderborn

  41. muruwwa (murūʿa) : manliness

  42. Sulami lists at least 40 hadith regarding futuwwa.
    Source: The Book of Sufi Chivalry Futuwwa, Muhammad ibn Husayn al-Sulami, transl. by Sh Tosun Bayrak al-Jerrahi al-Halveti; New York 1983

  43. continued:
    It is to this that (the Prophet’s) saying refers, may blessings and peace be upon him, “Many (a man) spends (the night in Prayer) and receives nothing for his vigils but sleeplessness and fatigue; and many (a man) fasts and receives nothing for his Fasting but hunger and thirst.” And ‘Ali (ibn Abi Talib), may God be pleased with him, said: "There is no good in a recitation unaccompanied by reflection."

  44. from (https://www.twf.org > Sayings > Prayer)

  45. عَنْ عَبْدِ اللہِ بْنِ عَمْرِو بْنِ الْعَاصِ أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللہِ صَلَّى اللہُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ قَالَ يُوشِكُ أَنْ يَأْتِيَ زَمَانٌ يُغَرْبَلُ النَّاسُ فِيهِ غَرْبَلَةً تَبْقَى حُثَالَةٌ مِنَ النَّاسِ قَدْ مَرِجَتْ عُهُودُهُمْ وَأَمَانَاتُهُمْ وَاخْتَلَفُوا فَقَالُوا وَكَيْفَ بِنَا يَا رَسُولَ اللہِ قَالَ تَأْخُذُونَ مَا تَعْرِفُونَ وَتَذَرُونَ مَا تُنْكِرُونَ وَتُقْبِلُونَ عَلَى أَمْرِ خَاصَّتِكُمْ وَتَذَرُونَ أَمْرَ عَامَّتِكُمْ

    Abdullah ibn Amr reported: The Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings be upon him, said, “Soon there will come a time in which the people are sifted and only the dregs of humanity remain, their covenants and trusts are disordered, and they are set against each other.” They said, “How should we be, O Messenger of Allah?” The Prophet said, “Keep to what you recognize as good and leave off what you recognize as evil. Turn your attention to your own personal affairs and leave off the affairs of the masses.”
    Source: Sunan Abī Dāwūd 4342
    Grade: Sahih (authentic) according to Al-Arna’ut

    Hadith on Fitnah: Standing firm during end-times tribulations (https://www.abuaminaelias.com)

  46. Among the works authentically related from Sayyid Ahmad al-Rifaʿi are the Hikam or Aphorisms in the beginning of which he states this saying. [Rifaʿi]

  47. The munaafiq (hypocrite) has a dozens of intentions, most of which he probably doesn't even discern.
    AHM, https://youtube.com/shorts/uGGaAH3IYiM


* Living Islam – Islamic Tradition *